Neural repair and regeneration for tissue engineering is the most promising strategy for treating human brain neurological diseases. Main bottle neck of the clinical therapy is that no ideal scaffold biomaterials as vehicle of neural stem cells (NSCs) and growth factors have been developed yet, even for the clinical tests. To solve this problem, a lot of work has been done and numerous kinds of biomaterials have been studied. The interaction between NSCs and biomaterials, especially the regulation of NSCs by materials, plays an essential role during the scaffold biomaterial selection. The article gives an overview on the recent progresses on regulation of NSCs by biomaterial and shows some recent patents regarding the progress in the field.