In this population-based retrospective study, we sought to investigate the association between HIV/AIDS during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes, including low birth weight (LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), preterm birth (PTB), very preterm birth (VPTB), and small for gestational age (SGA), among women in Florida by sociodemographic variables. Using data from Florida's maternally linked birth cohort files, we examined singleton live births in the state during 1998 to 2007 (N % 1,698,107). The study population was categorized based on the maternal HIV/AIDS status. Poisson regression models were used to generate adjusted rate ratios (ARR) to estimate the association between HIV/AIDS status and fetal growth parameters. The main outcome measures were fetal growth parameters, including LBW, VLBW, PTB, VPTB, and SGA. As compared to HIV/AIDS-negative women, mothers with HIV/AIDS had elevated risks for LBW (ARR % 1.40; 95% CI % 1.30-1.50), VLBW (ARR % 1.25; 95% CI % 1.04-1.51), SGA (ARR % 1.26; 95% CI % 1.17-1.35), PTB (ARR % 1.23; 95% CI % 1.03-1.47), and VPTB (ARR % 1.27; 95% CI % 1.20-1.36). Risk estimates for LBW and SGA were highest among Hispanics mothers with HIV/AIDS, while white mothers with HIV/AIDS had the highest risk levels for VLBW and PTB, compared to their HIV/AIDS negative counterparts. Our findings show that women with HIV/AIDS have elevated risks for inhibited fetal growth and shortened gestation with important racial/ethnic variation. This is the first known population-based study that reveals racial/ethnic differences in HIV/AIDS-related fetal growth morbidity outcomes.