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Current HIV Research

Volume 10 Issue 4
ISSN: 1570-162X
eISSN: 1873-4251

 

   All Titles

  HIV-1 Vpu Interference with Innate Cell-mediated Immune Mechanisms
  pp.327-333 (7) Authors: Johan K. Sandberg, Sofia K. Andersson, Susanna M. Bachle, Douglas F. Nixon, Markus Moll
 
 
      Abstract

The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu is emerging as a viral factor with a range of activities devoted to counteracting host innate immunity. Here, we review recent findings concerning the role of Vpu in hampering activation of cellular immune responses mediated by CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and natural killer (NK) cells. The two key findings are that Vpu interferes with CD1d expression and antigen presentation, and also with expression of the NK cell activation ligand NK-T and B cell antigen (NTB-A). Both these activities are mechanistically distinct from CD4 and Tetherin (BST-2) down-modulation. We summarize the mechanistic insights gained into Vpu interference with CD1d and NTB-A, as well as important challenges going forward, and discuss these mechanisms in the context of the role that iNKT and NK cells play in HIV-1 immunity and immunopathogenesis

 
  Keywords: HIV-1, iNKT cells, CD1d, Vpu, NK cells, immune evasion, NTB-A, Nef, Vpr, down-regulation
  Affiliation: CIM, Department of Medicine, F59, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, 14186 Stockholm, Sweden.
 
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