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Current Psychopharmacology

Volume 1 Issue 3
ISSN: 2211-5560
eISSN: 2211-5579

 

   All Titles

  Neurobiological Basis and Pharmacologic Treatment of Social Impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorders
  pp.233-246 (14) Authors: K. Yui, M. Koshiba, S. Nakamura
doi: 10.2174/2211556011201030233
 
 
      Abstract

Understanding of the neurobiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is crucial for developing effective treatments. Comparative developmental studies of socio-emotional behaviors provides an endophenotype relevant to understand the core symptoms of ASD. Social interactions are a fundamental aspect of human and animal behavior. We described a multi-behavior parameter integration method and applied it to female-male interaction of adult common marmosets. The behavior category change positively correlated with serum cortisol and progesterone levels after social interaction. A pharmacologic treatment and the evaluation of its efficacy on ASD patient has led to find its neurobiological and pathophysiological foundation. In this review, we summarize the clinical efficacy of risperidone solution, oxytocin, and dietary supplementation with large doses of arachidonic acid added to osahexaenoic acid for impaired social interaction in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). ASD is characterized by impaired social interaction, socialization, and restrictive and repetitive behaviors. Increases over time in the frequency of these disorders (to present rates of about 1 case per 100 children) might be attributable to factors such as new administrative classifications, and increased awareness, early identification. It is important to note that risperidone solution, intranasal administration of oxytocin, and dietary supplementation with large doses of arachidonic acid added to osahexaenoic acid have been reported to improve impaired social interaction. In addition, atypical antipsychotics aripiprazole and SSRI fluoxetine were useful in treating some aspects of social relatedness or the core deficits of communication and socialization. Administration of the anti-androgenic medication leuprolide acetate significantly helped to ameliorate clinical symptoms/behaviors of hyperandrogenemia in some subjects with ASD. The evaluation of treatments for ASD should be directed at neurobiological targets known to be important in the brain's response to abnormal developmental trajectories or toward enhancing plasticity during the highly sensitive period in gene-environment interaction (epigenetic mechanism). Further knowledge of neurobiology and effective treatments for ASD are required.

 
  Keywords: Autism spectrum disorders, impaired social interaction, neurobiological bases, multivariate behavior analysis, steroid hormone, pharmacologic treatment, risperidone solution, arachidonic acid, gallus gallus domesticus), Callithrix jacchus, eicosapentaenoic acid, buccal mucosa, magnocellular neurons, Oxyticin
  Affiliation: Research Institute of Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Ashiya University Graduate School of Education. Rokurokusocho 13-22, Ashiya, Hyogo 659-8511, Japan.
 
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