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Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews

Volume 2 Issue 3
ISSN: 1573-398X
eISSN: 1875-6387

 

   All Titles

  A Pulmonary Perspective on GASPIDs: Granule-Associated Serine Peptidases of Immune Defense
  pp.263-277 (15) Author: George H. Caughey
 
 
      Abstract

Airways are protected from pathogens by forces allied with innate and adaptive immunity. Recent investigations establish critical defensive roles for leukocyte and mast cell serine-class peptidases garrisoned in membrane-bound organelles-here termed Granule-Associated Serine Peptidases of Immune Defense, or GASPIDs. Some better characterized GASPIDs include neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G (which defend against bacteria), proteinase-3 (targeted by antineutrophil antibodies in Wegener's vasculitis), mast cell β-tryptase and chymase (which promote allergic inflammation), granzymes A and B (which launch apoptosis pathways in infected host cells), and factor D (which activates complement's alternative pathway). GASPIDs can defend against pathogens but can harm host cells in the process, and therefore become targets for pharmaceutical inhibition. They vary widely in specificity, yet are phylogenetically similar. Mammalian speciation supported a remarkable flowering of these enzymes as they co-evolved with specialized immune cells, including mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, cytolytic T-cells, natural killer cells, neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells. Many GASPIDs continue to evolve rapidly, providing some of the most conspicuous examples of divergent protein evolution. Consequently, students of GASPIDs are rewarded not only with insights into their roles in lung immune defense but also with clues to the origins of cellular specialization in vertebrate immunity.

 
  Keywords: Neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G, tryptase, chymase, granzyme, factor D
  Affiliation: Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Section, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center 111-D, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
 
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